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CITING SOURCES | EDITORIAL FACTS


Using all the knowledge within The IK Workshop Society (The IK Foundation Pictures in SmugMug, Vimeo and Demandar sites) - under a Creative Commons license - is free for all, we think it is a democratic right! With rights come obligations!

Please follow our rules and refer to the correct source.


TWO LEVELS:

We have chosen to recommend two levels on how to refer to our sources:

A: The first is if you quote generally from our pages.

B: The second level is if you use more detailed quotes / facts. Then it is important that you show your reader you have done a proper research by listing used sources.


HOW TO CITE:

A: Simply write: ”Source: The IK Workshop Society at www.ikfoundation.org.” If you use our pictures, you also need to contribute the credit text (photographer, artist et al.) related to each picture.

B: Depending on the source, follow any of the three recommendations below:

[1] iPROJECTS, FIELD STATION/NATURAE OBSERVATIO, iFACTS, iMAPS, iINDEX, iBOOKS, iLEARNING, iLOG, iMAGAZINE or THE PINE CONE JOURNAL. | ”Source: iLINNAEUS at: www.ikfoundation.org/iPROJECTS or FIELD STATION/NATURAE OBSERVATIO, iFACTS, iMAPS, iINDEX, iBOOKS, iLEARNING, iLOG, iMAGAZINE or THE PINE CONE JOURNAL (Accessed: Day/Month/Year).”

[2] iBOOKS: The complete set of books available online. | ”Source: Hansen, Lars (editor-in-chief), The Linnaeus Apostles – Global Science & Adventure. 8 vols. 11 books. London & Whitby: The IK Foundation & Company, 2007-2012. [Volume 2-7 (9 books)] Available online at: www.ikfoundation.org/ibooks (Accessed: Day/Month/Year).”

[3] iBOOKS: A particular part of a book, with reference to page/pages and author/apostle. | ”Source: Hansen, Lars (editor-in-chief), The Linnaeus Apostles – Global Science & Adventure. 8 vols. 11 books. London & Whitby: The IK Foundation & Company, 2007-2012. [Volume 2, p. 55. Anton Rolandsson Martin] Available online at: www.ikfoundation.org/ibooks (Accessed: Day/Month/Year).”


EDITORIAL FACTS ABOUT THE VOLUMES



VOLUMES ONE TO EIGHT
Even if the apostles are the principal authors on the strength of their journals and their accounts of experiences of now vanished landscapes and cultures, the aim of the editors has also been to convey up-to-date knowledge about the 18th century and explanatory facts concerning the apostles. In Volume One and Eight we have gathered information that is essential for an understanding of the 18th-century world. In the introductory volume leading writers in various subject fields have produced independent chapters that collectively introduce the reader under three topical headings - THE 18TH CENTURY, the SEEKERS of TRUTH and PRACTICAL ASPECTS - to the actual world in which the apostles lived or that they confronted during their journeys. Each chapter is self-contained and the information presented in it may in some cases be perceived as contradictory, but that is a decision taken by the editors in order to make things clear but also as a reminder that knowledge is and remains subject to change and may be interpreted over time in different ways. The concluding volume entitled ENCYCLOPÆDIA contains factual information presented in reference form under the following three headings: BIOGRAPHIES, BIBLIOGRAPHY and INDEX: Volumes One to Eight. It is in these two volumes that general facts and search facilities relating to all the volumes are to be found.

VOLUMES TWO TO SEVEN
In Volumes Two to Seven, divided into a total of nine books, the experiences of the seventeen apostles during their various journeys are presented. The division into volumes has been undertaken on a geographical basis, but each apostle's text constitutes a separate unit within the respective volumes. Out of respect for each apostle's text the decision was taken to dispense with the use of modern commentaries, so that the published texts will instead be seen as unique observations that form a basis for further research and inspiration. The SELECTION OF PUBLISHED TEXTS has been undertaken in a descending order of priority according to the following principles:

1. Where published texts exist, these have been used when they have been regarded as being the
qualitatively best ones from a scientific and descriptive point of view.


2. If a published text has not previously been translated into English, it has been used as the
basis for a translation.


3. If the text has not been published or some other forms of original material (original manuscript,
journal, diary or correspondence) exist that have been judged to provide a better basis, these have been used for translation and publication.


4. If a journey has not been fully published or has only been partly translated, points 1 to 3
above have in some cases been combined in chronological order by assembling the material
into a single unit.


5. If no original material exists, the written material produced by fellow travellers (manuscript, journal, diary or correspondence) during the same journey has been used for translation and publication.

The selection of MAPS and ILLUSTRATIONS has followed the points listed above, allowing for the fact that illustrations from earlier publications have varied to some extent in the various language editions. The reproductions of maps and illustrations are, as far as it has been possible and justifiable, in the original scale, and they have been placed in their original positions in the texts. Stains and damage etc. in the source material have been editor's introduction removed with some care, as these have been judged to be less significant than when reproducing a unique document, while the grey scales of the original editions have been adjusted to present-day paper and printing techniques.

The methods used by the TRANSLATORS and TRANSCRIBERS in working on some of the apostles' texts were to a certain extent determined by the circumstances that prevailed in the 18th century. We have relied on a tried and tested tradition with well-established rules regarding historical manuscripts in order to reproduce the texts correctly. Exceptions to that have been made with regard to references to illustrations in previous editions as well as to secondary texts (i.e. texts not derived from the apostles themselves in earlier editions), which have been omitted from the present text when regarded as irrelevant to the present edition. No attempt has been made to imitate the linguistic usage of the 18th century, the main aim having been to present the information and the content as such. The same applies to the transcription of names, though these have naturally followed the usage in the original texts. In the case of extensive lists of purely scientific descriptions - in some cases in Latin or German - in the original works the text has been reduced in size in this edition as compared with their original form.

As each published text has an individual identity, which must be treated with respect for variations in background and individual idiosyncracies within the overall framework, it will display a unique structure and style. In order to document the source materials and mode of procedure and as a guide to how each apostle's text has been dealt with, each one is followed by TRANSLATOR'S AND TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES compiled by those responsible for the translation and transcription of the respective texts.

With regard to the TITLES used in this edition, we reproduce the original title of each text - where one exists - which according to the custom of that time may constitute a rather pompous amount of text or, if they have not previously been published, merely a few words or no title at all. In order to provide easier and up-dated references to each of the published texts we have chosen in this edition to introduce each text in this set of volumes with a STANDARDISED TITLE for the text of each apostle.
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CITING SOURCES

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