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iPROJECTS | BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS - SPITSBERGEN (SVALBARD).


The mountains appear to be shaped like a prism and
stand in a long line, parallel to one another,
between which are snow-filled valleys.
SPITSBERGEN June 25th, 1758. ANTON ROLANDSSON MARTIN



Svalbard


BACKGROUND


The BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS are the overarching definition for a series of contemporary and scientifically sustainable projects established by The IK Foundation, an undertaking which aims to inspire and contribute to understanding of our shared planet! These projects are grounded in the concepts of retracing and lifting both practical and theoretical knowledge from the Linnaeus Apostles' journeys. The core of said projects revolve around a series of expeditions – with fieldwork in both rural and urban landscapes – which will be used to collect data and knowledge from several of the world's continents. This work incorporates a look into both cultural and societal values of specific regions as well as the measuring of the natural permutations of the landscapes travelled three centuries ago and if they have shifted with the passing of time. In essence the BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS are a mixture of 18th century knowledge and 21st century know-how, two contrasting entities employed in unison to create an endeavour which is interdisciplinary but also groundbreaking within its field. These contemporary expeditions offer insight into the developments and constants of the world we live in, divergences which lay the groundwork for new avenues of knowledge.


SPITSBERGEN (SVALBARD)


Spitsbergen Rock Sample The rock specimen is a quartzite with intercalations of grey slate bands and dotted with small pyrites. In 1920 Nils Zenzén identified the sample as the one donated to the Royal Academy of Sciences by Anton Rolandsson Martin. Photo: Jonas Hagström, Department of Palaeobiology at the Swedish Museum of Natural Sciences.

Midtøya, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. (MAP VERSION: IK | BBES | v. February 2017).Midtøya, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. (MAP VERSION: IK | BBES | v. February 2017).
Forlandsøyane close to the west coast of Prins Karls Forland, Spitsbergen, Svalbard are highly interesting and important from many points of view. Still, investigation of these islands have been rather limited. The main reason for this is their position and climate. Further, during the latest century, environmental and other protection of their precious nature, flora and fauna as well as their cultural heritage has been very well conducted.

The first known and documented scientific investigation of Forlandsøyane took place on the first of July, 1758. Then, Anton Rolandsson Martin, one of the Linnaeus apostles, managed to get ashore and study the largest of the three Forlandsøya islands, Midtøya. For the purpose of scientific studies of the climate, fauna and flora of Spitsbergen, he was a guest naturalist aboard a whaling ship.

While able to stay on Midtøya for a few hours only, Anton Rolandsson Martin, scientifically trained by Linnaeus and highly motivated, used the time available in a very determined manner. In addition to writing a thorough description of the island, its size, form, climate, fauna and flora, he selected a small but significant rock sample for further studies at home. This sample was documented, studied and classified by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It is noted that the same Academy had provided important funding for his Spitsbergen research endeavour.

Inspired by the pioneer investigations of Anton Rolandsson Martin, The IK Foundation arranged, in September 2016 (Voyage I) a research expedition to Spitsbergen and, not at least, to Midtøya. The expedition was part of the IK Foundation’s global BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS programme. Just as Anton Rolandsson Martin in 1758, the members of the 2016 expedition studied the west coast of Spitsbergen concerning climate, glaciers, flora and fauna as well as its impressively well-preserved cultural heritage. At the same time, the expedition, guided by Anton Rolandsson Martin’s diary, succeeded in confirming Midtøya as the island visited and studied by him. His diary was additionally first published in English by the IK Foundation in 2007 – The Linnaeus Apostles Global Science & Adventure (Volume Two Book One), together with his Talk On Norwegian Housekeeping based on his observations from a journey to Norway in 1759-1760. More information on Anton Rolandsson Martin as a person and his work can be found in iFACTS and iMAPS.

MARTIN’S EYE | FIELD STATION | NATURAE OBSERVATIO


In addition to the September 2016 expedition, The IK Foundation, supported by the LMK Foundation, have decided to attempt further scientific investigations of the west coast of Spitsbergen. This implied initiation of a long-term (2016-2019/2020) and large-scale project for further studies of Midtøya and the coastal area around the Forlandsøyane, its climate, fauna and flora, all with emphasis on environmental and cultural preservation of this invaluable place. One of very few places on Earth still possessing truly pristine wilderness, an ambitiously sheltered haven for important wildlife species.

As a result, The IK Foundation has defined an interdisciplinary project featuring the installation and operation in the coastal area around the Forlandsøyane/west coast of Forlandsletta of an eco-designed automatic scientific field station, referred to as the MARTIN’S EYE | FIELD STATION | NATURAE OBSERVATIO. The aim of the station is detailed round-the-clock functions as well as round-the-year scientific studies without disturbing presence of people, with visits to the area by one or two person(s) required only once, possibly twice, per year.

The project has several purposes, all of them regarded as exceedingly valuable for the Midtøya area, Spitsbergen, Svalbard and our planet and its life as a whole. As our overall and leading purpose, we want to use observational data to support preservation of the wildlife of Spitsbergen and Svalbard as well as contribute to an improved understanding of Planet Earth. It is our clear conviction that carefully performed studies will provide essential tools for better understanding of the interaction between wildlife and humanity. We are convinced that this will lead to promotion of qualitatively improved handling and care of natural resources, in turn fostering sustainably guided behaviour replacing current deplorably ruthless treatment of our common planet and its precious resources.

Midtøya, Forlandet Nationalpark, Svalbard. 10.9.2016. PHOTO: Erik Schytt Holmlund | Bridge Builder Expeditions Spitsbergen 2016 Midtøya, Forlandet Nationalpark, Svalbard. 10.9.2016. PHOTO: Erik Schytt Holmlund | Bridge Builder Expeditions Spitsbergen 2016.
The studies to be performed include a large number of targets. One, and important, target is the fauna, with emphasis on both mammals and birds. While current life conditions of seals, walruses and polar bears are the best on Earth, they are, unfortunately, seriously endangered by human global careless behaviour. Bird life, very rich and, again, thriving in globally outstanding conditions, is also, sadly, highly endangered by human actions. Our aim is threefold. First, we want to contribute to improved understanding of the animals present in the landscape. Second, it will be our endeavour to provide data leading to better insights how to favour optimum life conditions for these animals. Third, we aim at supporting efforts to improve global human behaviour in its interaction with nature.

In parallel to the fauna, we want to study the flora of Midtøya and the coastal area around the Forlandsøyane/west coast of Forlandsletta. A rather special climate means a rather special flora. Currently, it is flourishing thanks to the very thorough protection of the land. It is, however, as the fauna, critically endangered by human global behaviour. As for the mammals and birds, we aim at studies of the flora to improve knowledge, insight and protective measures for its survival in optimum conditions. Also as for the fauna, we want to obtain data for the island flora supporting human global realisation that it is very much in our common interest to change and improve our collective behaviour and interaction with Planet Earth.

Over the past century, we have seen and documented highly serious alterations of the nature of Svalbard, the shrinking of glaciers being a clear example. In this context, Midtøya and the area around the Forlandsøyane/west coast of Forlandsletta provide probing and evaluation conditions of very special value. It is uncommonly unaffected by local human activities. It is small enough not to impose significant local effects on more global conditions. Thus, observations of the natural conditions on the island and its surroundings as well as their variations are especially significant as probes of the results of global human-induced changes of environmental conditions. Global warming and air and sea pollution can be assessed, leading to improved human activity in a wide sense.

In short, we regard it, for several reasons, highly important to study the conditions prevailing on and around Midtøya. This is a realisation understood by Carl Linnaeus and Anton Rolandsson Martin but later sadly forgotten by humanity. Still, thanks to the very scrupulous restrictions imposed by Svalbard authorities, the special values of the island have been preserved. It will be our serious endeavour to use them to the utmost extent feasible, at the same time as avoiding all significant alien behaviour.

So far, the only way to perform research in the area such as detailed above has been through personal presence. Such presence is in serious contradiction to the much-needed preservative measures imposed by local Svalbard authorities. The natural answer is an automatic research facility, a field station providing detailed observational data, yet having no significant impact on its environment. We see MARTIN’S EYE | FIELD STATION | NATURAE OBSERVATIO as such a facility.

For more information about the IK Foundation’s field station program, please visit our dedicated site: FIELD STATION | NATURAE OBSERVATIO


AIMS & IDEAS

In addition to the overarching goals which are initially described in conjunction with the BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS, the work will seek out what is unique with each chosen Apostle’s work and to study (a selection of):

GENERAL

  • How said Apostles’ knowledge (practical/theoretical) was used after their initial observations in respective countries.
  • If their observations have been used in modern contexts to understand change/happenings or in various analyses.
  • To document a selection of physical locations visited by each respective Apostle and to try and find points of connection between then and now.
  • Comprehensive looks at what benefits and/or influence – if not primarily historical – their journals and documentations have had for their respective nations and subjects.

SPECIFIC

  • Locate and confirm Anton Rolandsson Martin’s landing place on the west coast of Spitsbergen.
  • To compare Anton Rolandsson Martin’s natural history samples and descriptions with new collections and knowledge.
  • To establish an eco-designed automatic scientific field station, referred to as the MARTIN’S EYE | FIELD STATION | NATURAE OBSERVATIO as a long-term and large-scale project for further studies of in the coastal area around the Forlandsøyane/west coast of Forlandsletta; its climate, fauna and flora, all with emphasis on environmental and cultural preservation of this invaluable place, one of very few places on Earth still possessing truly pristine wilderness, an ambitiously sheltered haven for important wildlife species.
  • To follow Anton Rolandsson Martin’s sail route to its most northerly point (almost) 80° N, where he observed the Cape Hakluyt at the 27th of June (79.7837° N, 10.7635° E).
  • Documenting the flora, fauna, geology etc along the route to compare with Martin’s descriptions as well as later expeditions’, and within this context study which similarities and changes these documentations from 250 years of scientific work can be made useful today.
  • Comparing various forms of documentation (text, drawing, photography etc) originating from different expeditions and give present day field artists a possibility to document the natural environment and everyday life of the expedition.
  • Among other matters; to present the results of the project in an exhibition at Grenna Museum - The Andrée Expedition Polar Centre, Sweden, which will be followed by a travelling exhibition and additionally display the conclusions of the project in iLINNAEUS, articles, books, films etc.
  • To inspire new interdisciplinary research in the spirit of Anton Rolandsson Martin – one of the first scientific field travellers to the Arctic area whose aims were to understand more about our planet Earth. The idea is to follow – in this case the journey of Anton Rolandsson Martin – through observations but also interactions with people, organisations and institutions in seeking to gain a better understanding of how the Linnaeus Apostles’ work eventually became part of the practical and theoretical framework of knowledge through history. Work which built bridges between then, now and maybe even tomorrow.

PRACTICAL REALISATION

  • Voyage I was a co-operation between The IK Foundation, Swedish Museum of Natural History, University of Gothenburg (Valand Academy) and Grenna Museum - The Andrée Expedition Polar Centre.
  • Voyage II – The Martin’s Eye | Field Station | Naturae Observatio is a co-operation between The IK Foundation and the LMK Foundation.

PUBLIC DOMAIN & CROWD SCIENCE


The BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS are presented in detail on their dedicated sites under iPROJECTS within iLINNAEUS. Here anyone interested can receive visual and textual updates from our members in the field, as well as results which said expeditions will create. The results themselves will be accessible via iLINNAEUS under the Creative Commons licences which we operate within, as well as in printed articles and publications. Interested individuals and organisations with local knowledge within the geographical and subject areas which the expeditions will encompass are welcome to get in touch with the IK Foundation. What is today denoted as Crowd Science was something the Linnaeus Apostles had great adherence to. We are especially interested in reaching out to projects which have used or use modern interpretations of the Apostles' work in their own studies and research!




FIELDWORK INFORMATION | 1st September to 15th September, 2017
The expedition - Voyage II - will be carried out in September 2017 during a fieldwork period of nine days, where the project will use the ice-strengthened ship M/S Freya as a platform for all of the expedition participants, used for transport, fieldwork and communication.

  • LONGYEARBYEN:
    Assembly/preparation for the fieldwork, meetings with regional institutions and embarking on the expedition ship M/S FREYA. Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text).
  • NORDENSKIÖLDSBREEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text). Bone collecting. Testing of field equipment and personal resources.
  • SKANSBUKTA:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text). Bone collecting. Testing of field equipment and personal resources.
  • SVENSKEHUSET:
    Visiting Svenskhuset. Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text). Bone collecting. Testing of field equipment and personal resources.
  • BARENTSBURG:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text). Field work: The Paleocene, 60 million years old deposits here have yielded beautiful plant fossils but very few animal fossils. However, a bony fish from the former area and a shark tooth from the latter indicated that the chemistry of the rocks can preserve bony material.
  • LÆGERNESET:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text). The purpose of the project is to establish the routes and places visited by the earliest scientific explorers to Svalbard (1596 -1799).
  • BELLPYNTEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text). The purpose of the project is to establish the routes and places visited by the earliest scientific explorers to Svalbard (1596-1799).
  • FORLANDSØYANE:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area between Haukebukta and Aitkenodden for reference studies of Anton Rolandsson Martin's visit in the area (Midtøya) 1758. A survey to find the ultimate scientific location for the NATURAE OBSERVATIO | FIELD STATION project. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects (sampling bones for the reconstruction of the Svalbard reindeer's colonization on the islands. Collecting ptarmigan droppings for diet analysis and the third is an attempt to see if the DNA from Anton Rolandsson's scurvy grass specimen can be used to definitely determine where he landed).
  • PRINS KARLS FORLAND:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area between Haukebukta and Aitkenodden for reference studies of Anton Rolandsson Martin's visit in the area (Midtøya) 1758. A survey to find the ultimate scientific location for the NATURAE OBSERVATIO | FIELD STATION project. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.
  • REINHARDPYNTEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology, DNA Projects and collecting nearshore and deltaic deposits from the Eocene, about 40 million years back. Marine bivalves and plant material are present. We expect to find also here vertebrate fossils.
  • DAWESPYNTEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.
  • POOLEPYNTEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.
  • COLESBUKTA:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology, DNA Projects and researching the Paleocene, 60 million years old deposits here have yielded beautiful plant fossils but very few animal fossils. However, a bony fish from the former area and a shark tooth from the latter indicated that the chemistry of the rocks can preserve bony material.
  • SALPYNTEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.
  • DAUDMANNSODDEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.
  • KAPP MARTIN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.
  • ISFJORDEN | LONGYEARBYEN:
    Field documentation (pictures, artwork and text) of the coastal area. Return to base. Field work: Fauna, flora, geology, astronomy, meteorology and DNA Projects.


THE PARTICIPANTS


EXPEDITION PARTICIPANTS


Arne Ardeberg

Arne Ardeberg

  • (b.) 1940
  • DUTY: Participant, researcher.
  • AIM: Monitoring of Aurora Developments. Studies of Noctilucent Clouds. Recording of Meteors. Coordination of Science Projects and Technical Installations.
  • POST: Professor emeritus in Astrophysics, Lund University, Sweden. Member of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Royal Physiographic Society, Royal Society of Sciences, Chair of Crafoord Prize Committee in Astronomy and The LMK Foundation Board.
Anna Balint

Anna Balint

  • (b.) 1985
  • DUTY: Participant, researcher.
  • AIM: The aim of the project is to collect more information on the body surface temperatures of different mammal species living in arctic habitats, using a FLIR T640 heat camera.
  • POST: Postdoctoral fellow, PhD, Department of Biology, Lund University.
Lionel Gauze

Lionel Gauze

  • (b.) 1975
  • DUTY: Participant, technical expert.
  • AIM: Pilot study of infrastructure and digital field communication.
  • POST: System Technical expert in Telecom and Opto-Mechanical Field Installation. CEO Apical Technologies, France.
François Glasser

François Glasser

  • (b.) 1974
  • DUTY: Participant, technical expert.
  • AIM: Pilot study of infrastructure and digital field communication.
  • POST: System Technical expert in Telecom and Opto-Mechanical Field Installation. CEO Apical Technologies, France.
Jonas Hagström

Jonas Hagström

  • (b.) 1959
  • DUTY: Participant, deputy expedition leader, researcher.
  • AIM: The expedition is an unique chance for me to help bring this forgotten Linnaean apostle out of the shadows and into the light.
  • POST: Curator, The Swedish Museum of Natural History.
Lars Hansen

Lars Hansen

  • (b.) 1960
  • DUTY: Expedition leader, researcher.
  • AIM: To strengthen our insight of the fieldwork that the so-called Linnaeus Apostles started almost three centuries ago. To understand Natural and Cultural History of Planet Earth – and hopefully building "new bridges of proficiency" between the past, present and future!
  • POST: Head at The IK Foundation, FRGS, London, United Kingdom.
Dan Hansen

Dan Hansen

  • (b.) 1954
  • DUTY: Participant, field assistant.
  • AIM: My main contribution to the expedition will be to serve for safety and assistance to the other members. At the same time, it will be an unforgettable experience to visit the landscape and people of Spitsbergen/Svalbard.
  • POST: Optimisation consultant of operations in recycling and agriculture.
Anders Hansson

Anders Hansson

  • (b.) 1964
  • DUTY: Participant, field assistant.
  • AIM: My primary aim is to ensure safety for other expedition members, allowing them to complete their respective work under safe conditions. Secondly, I want to experience as much of the nature, wildlife and scenery of Svalbard as possible.
  • POST: CEO of Abes V&M AB.
Arne Hegemann

Arne Hegemann

  • (b.) 1980
  • DUTY: Participant, researcher.
  • AIM: I will investigate seasonal variation in immune function in High-Arctic birds, to better understand how polar animals adapt to novel immunological threats under global change.
  • POST: Researcher, Department of Biology, Lund University.
Mikael Hjelmqvist

Mikael Hjelmqvist

  • (b.) 1959
  • DUTY: Participant, field assistant.
  • AIM: My aim is to assist the other participants and create a secure working platform. It is a great opportunity to be able to follow an expedition to Spitsbergen/Svalbard.
  • POST: Forest owner with focus on hunting and fishing. Bäck’s Forest Estate, Sweden.
Ulf Johansson

Ulf Johansson

  • (b.) 1970
  • DUTY: Participant, researcher.
  • AIM: This expedition will give me a unique opportunity to collect information and document the travels of the earliest scientific explorers to Svalbard (1596-1799). By establish the routes and the places these explorers visited the biological, geological and meteorological observations made during these voyages can be placed in a more detailed context and facilitate comparisons with the situation today, some 400 years later.
  • POST: Curator of birds, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
Thomas Mörs

Thomas Mörs

  • (b.) 1962
  • DUTY: Participant, researcher.
  • AIM: The aim of my project is to find evidence for earlier land bridges between Svalbard and the Canadian High Arctic using vertebrate fossils collected during the expedition.
  • POST: Senior Curator, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Andreas Nord

Andreas Nord

  • (b.) 1983
  • DUTY: Participant, researcher.
  • AIM: I will investigate seasonal variation in immune function in High-Arctic birds, to better understand how polar animals adapt to novel immunological threats under global change.
  • POST: Researcher, Department of Biology, Lund University; guest researcher Department for Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT.
Måns Sjöberg

Måns Sjöberg

  • (b.) 1964
  • DUTY: Participant, field artist.
  • AIM: I want to convey what I see with immediacy and simplicity to make the viewer feel present on the Arctic scene. Watercolor is the most portable medium and an excellent one for this purpose.
  • POST: Watercolour artist, illustrator and instructor, Lund, Sweden.
Levente Tarjányi

Levente Tarjányi

  • (b.) 1984
  • DUTY: Participant, technical assistant.
  • AIM: Assistance in pilot study for digital field communication, focusing on optical and measurement systems.
  • POST: Mechanical engineer (Msc in mechanical engineering 2013), currently working as product development engineer in the field of automotive interior systems at Draexlmaier in Hungary.

EXPEDITION SHIP CREW

  • Master, Emil Heijel
  • Chief Officer, Edvin Vidarsson
  • AB, Johan Nordström
  • AB, Staffan Hallberg
  • Chief Engineer, Mikael Kindahl
  • Chef, Ulf Zackrisson
  • Stewardess, Joanna Lignell
  • Steward, Nils Tillberg

EXPEDITION BACK BASE

  • Webmaster, digital network: Jeff Snoxell
  • Art work: Graham Scott
  • Research: Viveka Hansen
  • Controller: Jennie Asher
  • Maritime lawyer: Bo Benell
  • News Room: Jens Hansen
  • The Reception Desk: Leo Ryder

EXPEDITION PATRONS

  • LMK Stiftelsen, Lund
  • The IK Foundation



FIELDWORK INFORMATION | 1st September to 15th September, 2016


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In The IK Foundation and The IK Workshop Society there are continually ongoing comprehensive projects, each having different character and format. In iPROJECTS the current works and ideas are presented - Expeditions, Fieldwork, Research, Presentation in progress, and much more... For regular updates, and to make full use of iLINNAEUS' possibilities, we recommend fellowship through iFELLOW as well as following us on Twitter - Welcome!



NAME OF PROJECT
  • (Main title) The Linnaeus Apostles​ ​BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS​ ​To Understand Planet Earth​
  • (Subtitle) BRIDGE BUILDER EXPEDITIONS -​ Spitsbergen (Svalbard)​, ​Norway (Unincorporated area of Norway)
  • MARTIN’S EYE | FIELD STATION | NATURAE OBSERVATIO


GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE
  • Norway (Unincorporated area of Norway)


SUBJECTS
  • Geography
  • 18th century Studies'
  • Cultural History
  • History of Science
  • Natural History
  • Economic History
  • Field Notes, Arts and Photography​
  • Field station, long-term observations


INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES

  • The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway
  • Lund university, Sweden
  • The Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), United Kingdom
  • The Swedish Academy, Sweden
  • Stockholm university, Sweden.
  • University of Gothenburg, Sweden.


TIMELINE
  • 2016: Expedition Voyage I: Field work, research, documentation and follow-up work.
  • 2017: Expedition Voyage II: Field work, research, documentation and follow-up work.
  • 2018: Expedition Voyage III: Field work, research, documentation and follow-up work.
  • 2019: Expedition Voyage IV: Field work, research, documentation and follow-up work.
  • 2020: Expedition Voyage V: Field work, research, documentation and follow-up work.
  • 2019/2021: Publicise, Publishing and Exhibitions.


PUBLICISE
  • iLINNAEUS.org
  • Publications and articles
  • Exhibitions


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PATRONAGE


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